A Thorough Comparison of Melanotan 1 and Melanotan 2

You have found the ideal site if you are a peptide researcher interested in comparing Melanotan 1 with Melanotan 2. In this in-depth comparison, learn about the general information, action mechanisms, and potential impacts of the two peptides. Our experienced team will also provide details on the possible online source of research-grade Melanotan 1 and Melanotan 2 for your studies. These peptides have been studied closely in the context of:

  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Libido
  • UV resistance
  • Weight regulation

Read on for the latest clinical and preclinical data on these two substances.

Melanotan 1 Peptide: What is it?

Melanotan 1 (MT1), Afamelanotide (CUV1647), or [Nle4, D-Phe7]-alpha MSH is a synthetic analog of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH). An endogenous peptide consisting of thirteen amino acids, alpha-MSH is considered to be essential for maintaining energy balance, regulating hormonese related to hunger and libido, and the production of melanin. Melanocortin receptors (MCRs) in different tissues are considered by scientists to be mainly responsible for mediating these actions. In terms of structure, MT1 appears to be quite similar to endogenous alpha-MSH. Here are a few more details [3]:

  •  MT1 is made up of thirteen amino acids in a straight line.
  • Notable changes to MT1 from alpha-MSH include the addition of norleucine and D-phenylalanine at positions four and seven, respectively, in place of methionine and L phenylalanine.
  • A possible regulator of melanogenesis, MT1 has been hypothesized to exhibit a higher affinity for the MC1R and a longer half-life.
  • With continued stimulation, MT1, an MC1R agonist, has been speculated to increase melanin synthesis.

After its initial development in the course of research on photoprotection and pigmentation, the MT1 gene has suggested potential in the context of acute photodermatoses, such as polymorphic light eruption and erythropoietic protoporphyria.

An enzyme shortage is consdiered to encourage an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX in blood and skin cells, which may cause EPP. Because of its considered ability to absorb ultraviolet light, protoporphyrin IX may potentially produce reactive oxygen species that irritate and even scar the skin barrier. Scenesse has been posited to have better pharmacokinetics than conventional substances in the course of EPP research.

Melanotan 2 Peptide: What is it?

Another synthetic analog of alpha-MSH is Melanotan 2 (MT2), which has a very different structural makeup than both MT1 and alpha-MSH [5]:

  • The seven amino acids that makeup MT2 create a ring shape because of a lactam bridge that connects the aspartic acid side-chain carboxyl group at position 2 to the lysine side-chain amino group at position 7, making it a cyclic peptide.
  • The cyclic form of MT2 increases affinity for many melanocortin receptors, namely MC1R and MC4R, compared to MT1 and alpha-MSH.

Studies suggest that a broader array of action may potentially be experienced due to the increased receptor affinities of MT2. MT2 appears to target MC1R and MC4R to control melanogenesis and sexual behavior, respectively. Metabolic control is associated with its interaction with MC3R. Although MT2 was initially intended for research in relation to sunless tanning, recent studies have suggested that it may have other potential research impacts, surprisingly spanning to sexual dysfunction such as erectile dysfunction. Research on MT2 and its many possible impacts is ongoing, but the substance is unsuitable for human research and exposure.

Melanotan 1 vs. Melanotan 2: Research Potential

Because of their potential on melanocortin receptors, MT1 and MT2 have suggested several promising properties. Below, we will highlight some of the most significant potential properties of both substances.

Melanotan 1 vs. Melanotan 2

By activating MC4R, melanocortin agonists are considered to mainly improve libido and erectile function. Accordingly, MT2 has been suggested to increase sex desire in both sexes and is believed to be potentially effective for sexual function compared to MT1. In terms of sexual function, the following studies have suggested the greatest relevancy for Melanotan 2:

In a preliminary study, MT2 was speculated to enhance erections in 85% of male research models of erectile dysfunction (ED). In the MT2 group, researchers reported that the experimental group appeared to have exhibited an average erection length of 41 minutes and a statistically quantifiable increase in sexual arousal reported at +68%. Therefore, MT2 has been proposed as a research substitute for other traditional PDE5 inhibitor compounds.

Research indicates that an increase in sexual desire may be suggested by the fact that MT2 improves proactive sexual activity in rats given a mix of progesterone and estradiol benzoate. Female animal research models of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) are currently under research with PT-141, a peptide that is a metabolite of MT2.

Melanotan 1 vs. Melanotan 2: Secondary Research

Because of its structure and affinity for the melanocortin receptor, MT1 and MT2 may exert additional potential beyond those outlined above, such as:

Investigations purport that MT1 may have anti-inflammatory potential. In a brief experimental study, animal models who received an implant localized inflammation appeared to have exhibited a decrease in inflammation. Further data is required to explore this hypothesis, and the possible processes at work. Scientists speculate that MT2 may have also impacted the animal models by reducing hunger and reducing weight.

MT2’s interactions with MC3R and MC4R have been reported to decrease hunger and subsequent weight reduction. According to the little preclinical research conducted thus far, the peptide may potentially have a concentration-dependent appetite-suppressing action, resulting in decreased caloric intake and weight loss.

Scientists interested in high-quality, affordable Melanotan1 and Melanotan 2 peptides are encouraged to visit this website.


[i] Mahiques-Santos L. (2012). Melanotan [Melanotan]. Actas dermo-sifiliograficas, 103(4), 257–259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ad.2011.08.002

[ii] Moscowitz, A. E., Asif, H., Lindenmaier, L. B., Calzadilla, A., Zhang, C., &Mirsaeidi, M. (2019). The Importance of Melanocortin Receptors and Their Agonists in Pulmonary Disease. Frontiers in medicine, 6, 145. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2019.00145

[iii] Minder, E. I., & Schneider-Yin, X. (2015). Afamelanotide (CUV1647) in dermal phototoxicity of erythropoietic protoporphyria. Expert review of clinical pharmacology, 8(1), 43–53. https://doi.org/10.1586/17512433.2014.956089

[iv] King, S. H., Mayorov, A. V., Balse-Srinivasan, P., Hruby, V. J., Vanderah, T. W., &Wessells, H. (2007). Melanocortin receptors, melanotropic peptides and penile erection. Current topics in medicinal chemistry, 7(11), 1098–1106.

[v] Dorr, R. T., Lines, R., Levine, N., Brooks, C., Xiang, L., Hruby, V. J., & Hadley, M. E. (1996). Evaluation of melanotan-II, a superpotent cyclic melanotropic peptide in a pilot phase-I clinical study. Life sciences, 58(20), 1777–1784. https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3205(96)00160-9

[vi] Hadley M. E. (2005). Discovery that a melanocortin regulates sexual functions in male and female humans. Peptides, 26(10), 1687–1689. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2005.01.023

[vii] Ückert, S., Bannowsky, A., Albrecht, K., &Kuczyk, M. A. (2014). Melanocortin receptor agonists in the treatment of male and female sexual dysfunctions: results from basic research and clinical studies. Expert opinion on investigational drugs, 23(11), 1477– 1483. https://doi.org/10.1517/13543784.2014.934805

[viii] Wessells, H., Levine, N., Hadley, M. E., Dorr, R., & Hruby, V. (2000). Melanocortin receptor agonists, penile erection, and sexual motivation: human studies with Melanotan II. International journal of impotence research, 12 Suppl 4, S74–S79. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijir.3900582

[ix] Rössler, A. S., Pfaus, J. G., Kia, H. K., Bernabé, J., Alexandre, L., & Giuliano, F. (2006). The melanocortin agonist, melanotan II, enhances proceptive sexual behaviors in the female rat. Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior, 85(3), 514–521. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2006.09.023

[x] Edinoff, A. N., Sanders, N. M., Lewis, K. B., Apgar, T. L., Cornett, E. M., Kaye, A. M., & Kaye, A. D. (2022). Bremelanotide for Treatment of Female Hypoactive Sexual Desire. Neurology international, 14(1), 75–88. https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint14010006

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